Composite Propellants

Composite propellants are heterogeneous mixtures of fuels and small particulate oxidizers, held together by a highly viscous binder.

Composite propellants are typically used as solid propellant for rocket systems, kick motors for satellites and booster motors for launching cruise missiles.

Composite Propellants


Propellant Ingredient (click for spec sheet)FunctionSpecification
Aluminum PowderFuelMIL-A-82728 (OS)
Ammonium Perchlorate
NH4ClO4; available in 90, 200 and 400 micron particle size (customizable)
Mixed with a binder compound and fuels such as powdered Aluminum, Ammonium Perchlorate can generate self-sustained combustion at much below atmospheric pressure, making it an ideal propellant for rockets and missiles.
Oxidizing ComponentMIL-A-192B
MIL-A-82667/2 (OS)
MIL-A-82667/1 (OS)
MIL-A-23946 (WEP)
MIL-A-23948 (AS)
Carboxyl Terminated Polybutadiene Linear (CTPB)
CTPB, a form of synthetic rubber, is one of the best synthetic rubbers used as a binder for composite propellants.
Binder (synthetic)MIL-PRF-23942A (AS)
Catocene (2,2-Bis-Ethylferrocenyl Propane) Catalyst (iron-based; >1 inch/sec burn rate)
Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Adipate (DEHA)PlasticizerDOD-D-23443B
Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) SebacatePlasticizerMIL-D-10692
Dimeryl Diisocyanate (DDI)
Dimeryl Diisocyanate (DDI-1510) is the preferred curative in low- molecular weight HTPB polymer rocket propellant formulations. This high-molecular weight isocyanate is based on a 36-carbon aliphatic backbone possessing low toxicity and low water sensitivity. Also functions as a burn rate catalyst.
Curing agentMIL-C-85498 (AS) Type I
MIL-D-82675 (OS)
Dioctyl AdipatePlasticizerMIL-D-85494
Dioctyl PhthalatePlasticizerMIL-D-38705
Dioctyl Sebacate (DOS)PlasticizerCAS: 122-62-3
Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB)
HTPB is an excellent binder for solid rocket fuels, providing a solid but elastic fuel mass. It is also used as a hybrid rocket fuel in conjunction with Nitrous Oxide (N2O).
HTPB R-45M is the highest-grade binder for military applications, providing low-temperature flexibility, excellent adhesion to metal and excellent dispersion of fillers.
Binder (synthetic)MIL-H-85497
Isodecyl PelargonatePlasticizerAS 2328
Isophorone Diisocyanate (IPDI)Curing agentMIL-C-85498 (AS) Type II
Isophthaloyl bis(2-methylaziridine) (DIB-752)Binder
Neutral polymeric bonding agent (NPBA)Binder
Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN)Binder
Triphenyl BismuthCure catalyst, bonding and accelerating agent MIL-T-82825

Bonding Agents for Composite Propellants

Bonding AgentFuntionSpecification
1,1'-Isophthaloyl Bis[2-Methylaziridine Bonding agent for Ammonium Perchlorate in polybutadiene matrices (752)
MAPO (tris[1-(2-methyl) aziridinyl] phosphine oxide)Curing agent for CTPB pre-polymers and a bonding agent for HTPB pre-polymers.DOD-T-82666A
Neutral Polymeric Bonding Agents (NPBA)Bonding agent for composite rocket propellants
TEPAN (Tetra-ethylenepentamine acrylnitrile)Bonding agent
TEPANOL (Tetra-ethylenepentamine acrylnitrile glycidol)Liquid bonding agent and curative (878)MIL-T-82824
Trimesol-1(2 ethyl) aziridineTrifunctional aziridine amide curing agent (868)